Hyper tumor: Evolution’s way of fighting cancer

Highlight:-

  • There are over 2000 types of cancer
  • Cancer can affect anyone regardless of their lifestyle
  • The hyper tumor is the condition in which a new tumor invades and destroys part of already existing tumor
  • Animals such as elephants have more adaptations that give them the ability to evade cancer

 

 

Cancer is one of the most feared condition that affects human beings, cancer does not spread through air, water or soil, the biggest problem with cancer is it begins in your own body, cancer is a result of a hard-working cell gone wrong, it is generally believed height, weight and age are the major factors contributing to cancer. There are over 2000 types of cancer, cancer can affect all humans as well as animals.

 

What exactly is cancer?

Cancer is an abnormal or non-regulated growth of defective cells anywhere in the body. Anything can cause a normal body cell to stop functioning or develop abnormal can be or can cause cancer. Generally, the cancer-related agents can be categorized into the exposure of chemical or toxic compounds or can also be the result of ionizing radiation. Sometimes cancer can develop because of error in cell splitting or genetics.

What are the basic symptoms of cancer?

The symptoms of cancer are very specific to the type of cancer or the phase of cancer, but generally, fatigue, weight loss, sudden or persistent pain, change in the color of skin, change in bladder functioning, blood in the stool, cough, unexplained loss of appetite, lumps, recurring infections which would not clear with usual treatment, and unregulated tissue masses are few of the general symptoms that can be seen during cancer.

How to diagnose cancer?

There are many ways available to discover or presumptively test cancer, the definite diagnoses can only be done by examination of a biopsy sample from the tissue of the suspected region. After diagnosing the cancer is classified into a stage, the stage determines the seriousness of cancer, the stages are generally classified from stage 0 to stage 4.

What are the most common types of cancer in humans?

The common types of cancer vary from the sex or the age of the individuals, thus the common threat faced by all the three categories is very different and the cancer trouble faced by each of them varies as well.

Men:-Most common cancers faced by them are prostate cancer, lung cancer, and colorectal cancer.

Women:- Colorectal and Lung cancer remains a risk in women as they do with men, yet the other risk that women face is breast cancer.

Children:- Children, however, are at a different risk as compared to both men and women, because they have a weaker immune system and cancer at an earlier age can force into hard adulthood, the common cancer threats faced by them are Leukemia, Brain tumor, and lymphoma.

What are the major risk factors leading to cancer?

Along with age, cancer and type of cancer are influenced by many other factors such as age, gender, race, environmental factors, diet, and genetics. Cancer can easily be caused due to bad or unhealthy diet or living habits. It is also proved that red meat is a high-risk agent that can cause cancer. While as preserved meat was also placed on the carcinogenic list.

How dangerous is cancer?

Cancer is regarded as one of the leading causes of death throughout the world, it has accounted for 8.2 million deaths. Lung cancer, liver cancer, colon cancer cause the most cancer-related deaths every year. And it is predicted that there would be a 70% increase in deaths by cancer by 2030.

How does a physician determine cancer staging?

The common elements considered for staging cancer are the location of the primary tumor, size of the tumor and number of tumors, cell type and the presence or absence of metastasis. The primary tumor can be evaluated on the factors of size and visibility, TX- is the code used to denote the tumor cannot be evaluated, T0- is the code used when there is no evidence of primary tumor.

What are the options available for cancer treatment?

Majorly the treatment is based on the type and stage of cancer. In a few cases, diagnosis and treatment occur at the same time, as the surgeon removes the tumor at the same time when the surgeon removes the tissue for biopsy. The treatment generally is in a pattern or sequence, in the order of components: Surgery followed by chemotherapy.

How does the body autosave itself from cancer?

The human immune system is filled with wonders, the immune system is the most powerful military setup inside our body, it keeps a track on all the viruses and bacteria trying to attack our system, the immune system sends t-cells to execute the cells which have gone wild, or are trying to work extra hard and disturbing natural flow and functioning of the body. But the few cells which are able to hide themselves are the once that turn into cancer cells.

It is a popular belief that the larger the body, more are the chances of developing a cancer cell, as cancer cells are produced due to mutation during the splitting of the cells, thus practically bigger the animal more are its chances of developing cancer, because more cell splitting means more chances for cells the mutate. Thus cancer has been around since the time dinosaurs lived on this planet.

But there are popular exceptions to it, those popular exceptions are Elephants and Whales, now one may feel how do these heavy and tall mammals escape from the scare of cancer even though, height, weight, and age are the major factors that could lead to cancer, the reason is the evolution of body, in the similar way maybe humans would also soon find a way to become cancer resistant or may evolve to never be affected by cancer.

But currently, one of the major element that helps these mammals survive or fight cancer is the phenomenon known as hyper tumor

 

What is a hyper tumor?

A hyper tumor is a condition in which a new tumor invades and destroys part of the already existing tumor, this generally occurs when the tumor grows to a large extent and has large demand of supplies from the bodies, in such situation the multiplication of cancer cell creates a secondary modification in cell and a new tumor begins to form, this tumor is situated on the top of the old tumor, this newly formed tumor begins to suck all the proteins and nutrients from the original tumor.

As the original tumor is already focused on expanding, it is not bothered by the hyper tumor sucking off the nutrients, but soon the hyper tumor rapidly begins to suck the original tumor out dry, and the primary tumor starts losing its nutrients and begins to shrink, and as the original tumor shrinks the hyper tumor loses its source of proteins and thus dies out as well.

 

How does the hyper tumor help them survive?

The size of Human and animal plays an important role in how the cancer cell or tumor may affect them, the most popular example of this is the rat and the human test, if the rat and a human develop cancer at the same time, the rat dies 30 times faster than a human does because of that cancer. Just because of the size cancer takes longer to spread throughout the body before it turns fatal.

While humans get 30 times longer than rats, the whales are many more times bigger than human beings, thus when cancer occurs in the whale, it just keeps on growing, as the area to cover is huge, there are no symptoms visible on the whale instantly. Due to the size of the whale the cancer cells multiple at a faster rate to attain the desired expansion, but during this expansion, secondary mutation takes place, which causes a hyper tumor to develop over the preexisting tumor, this hyper tumor is then what causes the end of the original tumor by sucking it drying and thus ending the supply of nutrients and ends up killing itself too.

While the elephants have an evolutionary gift, elephants have cells that consist of TP53 tumor antigens on an always active state, which is also known as the protector of the genome, this antigen increases the tumor suppression ability of the mammal and also increases the resistance from cancer cell creation during the process of cell splitting.

Is it possible to implement this in humans?

This unique ability of huge animals to resist cancer across a very large number of cells has gathered a lot of interest amongst the scientific community and has been a topic of research and experimentation in the science world. An experiment on the similar grounds was conducted, the base of the experiment was a genetically modified laboratory mouse, who was altered to denote “Always on” active TP53 tumor antigen, this is the similar type of gene found in the elephants, the gene modification helped mice develop stronger tumor suppression ability, but on the downside, these modifications boosted the aging process of the mice and it showed signs of premature aging.

Although would this help humans, is still to be checked and decided, however, there was a similar test conducted again with lab mice, but this time the mice did not show any signs of aging, it is assumed in its native promoter, p53 is not a cause of premature aging, unlike the preactivated p53 molecules.

 

A natural evolution that helps those mammals fight cancer?

The natural theory of evolution is the strongest way nature helps us to fight and survive through our problems or modifies our genes in such a manner than they can make the necessary adaptation for survival, the basic requirement for multicellular organisms is to have an ability to suppress cancer formation during cell splitting, in order to build larger and stronger bodies it was necessary for the cells to have stronger and greater cancer suppression ability.

Scientific studies prove that animals such as elephants have more adaptations that give them the ability to evade cancer, however, the medium-sized organisms did not develop this resistance because, from the evolutionary standards, the benefits did not match with the drawbacks it produced, which were for providing a little better protection the body would have had to compromise heavily on fertility, and natural selection can newer permit anything that can put the development or existence of organisms at risk.

While with the whales, their evolutionary process helped them by particularly targeting cancer and creating a particular line of defense, certain genomic loci (Specific part of the genome) had evolved at a faster pace in whales as compared to the other mammals, these genes are responsible for the process of in-cell DNA repair, this helps them repair the genetically modified cells that had the potential to transform in the cancer cells. Therefore they are responsible for the maintenance process of healthy cells.

Is it possible to prevent cancer?

Many experts claim that the majority of the cancers can be prevented, or their chances can be considerably reduced by following particular measures such as a constant medical checkup, avoid smoking, avoid tobacco, avoid exposure to direct sunlight, etc.

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