Parkinson’s Disease: Symptoms, Causes, Risk Factors, Complications, Prevention

HIGHLIGHTS:

  • What is Parkinson’s disease
  • Symptoms to identify Parkinson’s disease
  • Causes that leads to Parkinson’s disease
  • Risk causing factors of Parkinson’s disease
  • Problems faced by Parkinson’s disease affected patients
  • Preventive measures to fight Parkinson’s disease

Parkinson’s disease is a progressive nervous system disorder that affects movement. Symptoms start gradually, sometimes starting with a barely noticeable tremor in just one hand. Tremors are common, but the disorder also commonly causes stiffness or slowing of movement.

Parkinson’s disease is a disease which is identified by the symptoms like tremor, rigidity, slow movements of body parts and gait problems and also some of the motor symptoms like depression, cognitive problems and pain, anxiety, etc. As soon as the Parkinson’s disease increases the impact on the motor system also increases.

If the person is suffering from the Parkinson’s disease then he may face problems like shaking, rigidity, slowness of movement, difficulty while walking, thinking and behavioral problems, Dementia becomes common in the advanced stages of the Parkinson’s Disease, lack of sleep, the person who is infected by the disease can sometimes also feel depressed and anxiety is also common in the Parkinson’s Disease.

The cause of the Parkinson’s disease is still unknown but it is said that it involves both environmental and genetic factors. Like if any one member of the family is infected or affected by the Parkinson’s disease then there are pretty much chances that the Parkinson’s disease can affect the other members of the family. There is an increased risk of getting affected to the Parkinson’s disease to those people who are often exposed to various pesticides or regularly work with pesticides.

Some of the report says that the Parkinson’s disease is mainly develops or occurs in men more than women and the count of Parkinson’s disease in men is gradually more than that in women.

SYMPTOMS OF PARKINSON’S DISEASE:

The signs and the symptoms of the Parkinson’s disease can be different for every individual. In the early stages of the Parkinson’s disease, the signs and the symptoms of the disease may be mild and the person who has been infected cannot notice the symptoms or go unnoticed.

The Parkinson’s disease symptoms can develop at one side of the body and can be more harmful on the same side of the body even after the whole body is affected.

The Parkinson’s disease symptoms may include:

  1. Tremor: A tremor or also called as shaking, usually takes place in the limbs of the human body and often on the hands and fingers. Because of this you may rub your thumb and fore finger back and forth and this phenomenon is known as a pill-rolling tremor and also your hand may tremor if it is kept at rest.
  2. Slowed Movement (bradykinesia): The Parkinson’s disease may result in slowing down of the movements of the body. The affected person from the disease can identify this from the movements of hid body parts and facing difficulties while doing simple tasks and time consuming. While walking also, the steps of person affected by the Parkinson’s disease may become shorter. The person has to drag his feet while walking.
  3. Rigid Muscles: The muscle stiffness can also occur in any part of the body and the stiff muscles can be painful and can also limit your range of motion.
  4. Impaired Posture and Balance: The person affected by the Parkinson’s disease may have or feel balance problems and the posture of the affected person may also become stooped.
  5. Speech Changes: If the person is affected by the Parkinson’s disease then he may face problems while speaking. The affected person may speak softly or quickly and can also slur or hesitate while to talking to others.
  6. Automatic movements: The person who is affected by the Parkinson’s disease may feel or can have a decreased ability to perform unconscious movements which include eyes blinking, smiling and swinging your arms while walking, etc.
  7. Writing changes: It can also become hard to write and the writing may appear small while writing for the person who has been affected by the Parkinson’s disease

If you are having any kinds of symptoms that are mentioned above that there can be chances of Parkinson’s disease and you need to consult a doctor for the same.

CAUSES OF PARKINSON’S DISEASE:

If the person is suffering from Parkinson’s disease, the neurons also called as the nerve cells in the brain can gradually break down or die and most of the symptoms of the Parkinson’s disease are caused due to the loss of neurons or the nerve cells that produces a chemical messenger in the brain of the infected person called dopamine.

The causes of the Parkinson’s diseases are still unknown, but several factors appear to play which includes the following:

  1. Your genes: Researchers have identified some specific genetic mutations that can cause the Parkinson’s disease. But these genetic mutations are very uncommon except in some of the rare cases in which many family members are affected by the Parkinson’s disease.

However, some of the gene variations appear to increase the risk of Parkinson’s disease.

  1. Environmental triggers: The Parkinson’s disease can may also occur due to certain toxins or the environmental factors and these can also increase the risk for Parkinson’s disease but relatively the risk is low due to the environment.
  2. The presence of lewy bodies: The clumps of the specific substance within the brain cells are the microscopic makers of the Parkinson’s disease and these specific substances within the brain cells are called lewy bodies and these lewy bodies can hold an important factor to the cause of Parkinson’s disease.
  3. Aplha-synuclein is found within lewy bodies: Scientists believe that a lot of substances are found within the lewy bodies but according to the scientists the important one is the natural and widespread protein called as the alpha-synuclein (a-synuclein) and this protein can be seen in a clumped form that the cells cannot break down and this is currently an important focus on among the researchers of the Parkinson’s Disease.

 

RISK FACTORS FOR PARKINSON’S DISEASE:

The risk factors for Parkinson’s disease include:

  1. Age: The Parkinson’s disease can be rarely seen in the adults who are young and they can rarely experience the Parkinson’s disease. The risk of the Parkinson’s disease increases according to the age of the people i.e. more age of a person then the risk of being attacked by the Parkinson’s disease is more and the Parkinson’s disease can be usually seen in the people whose ages are around 60 years.
  2. Heredity: If any one of the family member or any other relative in the family is affected by the Parkinson’s disease then the chances of being affected by the Parkinson’s disease are more.
  3. Sex: The Parkinson’s disease develops more in men as compared with women. Men more likely get affected by this disease as that of any women.
  4. Exposure to toxins: The chances of developing the Parkinson’s disease may increase due to the ongoing exposure to pesticides and the herbicides. The people who work along with the pesticides and herbicides may increase the risk of being affected by the Parkinson’s disease.

COMPLICATIONS:

Parkinson’s disease is often accompanied by some of these additional problems and which may be treatable:

  1. Difficulties while thinking: The person who is affected by the Parkinson’s disease may also experience some cognitive problems also known as “dementia” and thinking difficulties. These problems usually occurs in the later stage of the Parkinson’s disease and such cognitive problems are not very responsive to medications.
  2. Depression and Emotional changes: The person who is affected by the Parkinson’s disease will be experiencing depression and sometimes his emotions may change rapidly and these things the affected person will come to know in the very early stages of the Parkinson’s disease. The person who is affected from the Parkinson’s disease may feel fear, anxiety and loss of motivation.
  3. Swallowing Problems: The person who is suffering can develop difficulties with swallowing while eating or drinking and this happens due to the saliva in the mouth which may get accumulated due to the slow swallowing which will further lead to drooling.
  4. Chewing and Eating Problems: During the late stage of the Parkinson’s disease, the disease mostly affects the muscles in the mouth of the affected person making it difficult to chew. This can also lead to choking and poor nutrition.
  5. Sleep problems and Sleep disorders: The people who are suffering from the Parkinson’s disease may have problem while sleeping which also includes waking up very frequently throughout the night also waking up early or falling asleep during the day. Some of the people may also feel eye movement sleep behavior disorder and it is involving acting out your dreams. The doctor may suggest the person to do medications which may help the person’s sleep problem.
  6. Bladder Problems: The person who is suffering from the Parkinson’s disease may face some bladder problems which includes being unable to control urine or having difficulties while urinating.
  7. Constipation: Many People who are suffering from the Parkinson’s disease may experience constipation which occurs mainly due to a slower digestive tract.

PREVENTION:

As the cause of the Parkinson’s disease is not known, the ways that are used to prevent the disease also remain as a mystery.

It is said that the Parkinson’s disease cannot be cured fully or may also reduce the risk of being affected by the Parkinson’s disease.

In some of the other researches it is also mentioned or shown that the people who regularly drink caffeine (which is mostly found in coffee, tea or cola) are having less chances of being affected by Parkinson’s disease as compared to those who don’t drink the caffeine. However it is still not known that whether caffeine actually protects the person from getting affected by Parkinson’s disease.

Currently there is no proof on what type of products can prevent people for not being affected by Parkinson’s disease. Some researchers also says that green tea can also reduce the risk of being caught by the Parkinson’s disease.

 

OVERVIEW:

Parkinson’s disease is a progressive nervous system disorder that affects the movements of the body. The symptoms of the Parkinson’s disease will start gradually and sometimes the person is unable to notice the tremor in just one hand. The expressions of the face also changes in the early stages of Parkinson’s disease.

Although the Parkinson’s cannot be cured but the doctor may suggest that medications can significantly improve the symptoms. Occasionally the doctor may suggest to undergo a surgery to regulate certain regions of the brain and can improve the symptoms.

According to Dr. Monty Silverdale, Consultant neurologist at Great Manchester Neuroscience Centre, said that: “The study is significant because it study has shown the important role of genetics in chronic pain in Parkinson’s disease and their findings suggest that cannabis-based compounds may be worth investigating as a treatment for pain in Parkinson’s disease”.

 

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